- LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY
- VITAMIN DEFICIENCIES
Bone mineral density
Vitamin Deficiencies (fat-soluble)
As a result of malnutrition, chronic pancreatitis patients can develop nutritional deficiencies, especially of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K.4
Serious health problems associated with vitamin deficiency include:4
- Decreased immune competence (Vitamin A)
- Osteopenia/osteoporosis (Vitamin D)
- Neurological disorders (Vitamin E)
- Blood coagulation disorders and osteopenia/osteoporosis (Vitamin K)
Multiple vitamin deficiencies are common in individuals with untreated PEI.
PEI has been associated with high morbidity and mortality, secondary to malnutrition-related complications, and an increased risk of cardiovascular events.
Singh VK, et al. 20176
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